Background: Laser-scanning cytometry (LSC) allows fast automated scoring of fluorescence signals directly on microscopic slides. Frequencies of spontaneous aneuploidies in murine and human sperm were evaluated by using this new LSC technique. Rapid detection may be of great interest in reproductive toxicology, as certain chemicals act as aneugens during meiosis, increasing the production of aneuploid germ cells.Materials and Methods: Selected chromosomes were detected by using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and fluorochrome-labeled DNA-probes. Sperm chromatin was counterstained with propidium iodide. By scanning across the slide, fluorescence signals within sperm nuclei were detected and counted.Results: In murine sperm, the frequencies of disomies for chromosomes 8 and X were 0.019% and 0.021%, respectively. The automated assessment in human sperm resulted in disomy frequencies of 0.061% and 0.090% for chromosomes 13 and X, respectively. These results were comparable to data obtained from the same samples by manual microscopic scoring and to literature data.Conclusions: Frequencies of genotypically abnormal sperm were not significantly different between automated and manual scoring. In conclusion, sperm aneuploidy was reliably determined and disomic sperm were successfully relocated by LSC. By virtue of rapid and reliable analyses, LSC has the powerful potential to replace manual microscopic FISH analysis in molecular cytogenetics.