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Attachment of chloride anion to sugars: Mechanistic investigation and discovery of a new dopant for efficient sugar ionization/detection in mass spectrometers.
Chem. Eur. J. 18, 13059-13067 (2012)
Verlagsversion Volltext DOI
A new method for efficient ionization of sugars in the negative-ion mode of electrospray mass spectrometry is presented. Instead of using strongly hydrophobic dopants such as dichloromethane or chloroform, efficient ionization of sugars has been achieved by using aqueous HCl solution for the first time. This methodology makes it possible to use hydrophilic dopants, which are more appropriate for chromatographic separation techniques with efficient sugar ionization and detection in mass spectrometry. The interaction between chloride anions and monosaccharides (glucose and galactose) was studied by DFT in the gas phase and by implementing the polarizable continuum model (PCM) for calculations in solution at the high B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p)//B3LYP/6-311+G(2d,p) level of theory. In all optimized geometries of identified [M+Cl]- anions, a non-covalent interaction exists. Differences were revealed between monodentate and bidentate complex anions, with the latter having noticeably higher binding energies. The calculated affinity of glucose and galactose toward the chloride anion in the gas phase and their chloride anion binding energies in solution are in excellent agreement with glucose and galactose [M+Cl]- experimental intensity profiles that are represented as a function of the chloride ion concentration. Density functional calculations of gas-phase affinities toward chloride anion were also performed for the studied disaccharides sucrose and gentiobiose. All calculations are in excellent agreement with the experimental data. An example is introduced wherein HCl was used to effectively ionize sugars and form chlorinated adduct anions to detect sugars and glycosylated metabolites (anthocyanins) in real biological systems (Vitis vinifera grape extracts and wines), whereas they would not have been easily detectable under standard infusion electrospray mass spectrometry conditions as deprotonated species.
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Publikationstyp Artikel: Journalartikel
Dokumenttyp Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Schlagwörter Analytical Methods ; Carbohydrates ; Density Functional Calculations ; Mass Spectrometry ; Wine Analysis; Electrospray-ionization ; Liquid-chromatography ; Complex-formation ; Oligosaccharides ; Decompositions ; Optimization ; Conformation ; Accuracy ; Adducts ; Wines
ISSN (print) / ISBN 0947-6539
Zeitschrift Chemistry - A European Journal
Quellenangaben Band: 18, Heft: 41, Seiten: 13059-13067
Begutachtungsstatus Peer reviewed
Institut(e) Research Unit Analytical BioGeoChemistry (BGC)