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Metabolism of diclofenac in plants – hydroxylation is followed by glucose conjugation.

J. Hazard. Mater. 243, 250-256 (2012)
Open Access Green möglich sobald Postprint bei der ZB eingereicht worden ist.
Pharmaceuticals from human or veterinary medication form a new class of micropollutants that poses a serious threat to our aquatic environment and its organisms. The intensively used nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug diclofenac is found in the environment worldwide due to its poor elimination during waste water treatment processes. In order to test phytoremediation as a tool for the removal of this drug from waste water, the uptake of the compound into plant tissues and its metabolic pathway was addressed using Hordeum vulgare (barley) and a hairy root cell culture of Armoracia rusticana (horse radish) as model species. Diclofenac is taken up by plants and undergoes rapid metabolization; already after 3 h of exposure the drug and its metabolites could be detected in the plant tissues. Similar to its fate in mammalian cells the drug is activated in a phase I reaction resulting in the hydroxylated metabolite 4′OH-diclofenac which is conjugated subsequently in phase II to a glucopyranoside, a typical plant specific metabolite. After exposure to 10 and 100 μM diclofenac a concentration dependent formation of the hydroxylated metabolite was observed, while the formation of the phase II metabolite OH-diclofenac glucopyranoside was not positively affected by the higher concentration. To our knowledge this is the first time these two human painkiller metabolites are shown to occur in plant tissues.
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Publikationstyp Artikel: Journalartikel
Dokumenttyp Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Schlagwörter Barley ; Diclofenac ; Hairy Root Culture ; Lc-ms ; Metabolism
ISSN (print) / ISBN 0304-3894
e-ISSN 1873-3336
Quellenangaben Band: 243, Heft: , Seiten: 250-256 Artikelnummer: , Supplement: ,
Verlag Elsevier
Begutachtungsstatus Peer reviewed