Introduction Systemic sclerosis (SSc)-related pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) has emerged as a major mortality prognostic factor. Mutations of transforming growth factor beta (TGF beta) receptor genes strongly contribute to idiopathic and familial PAH. Objective To explore the genetic bases of SSc-PAH, we combined direct sequencing and genotyping of candidate genes encoding TGF beta receptor family members. Materials and methods TGF beta receptor genes, BMPR2, ALK1, TGFR2 and ENG, were sequenced in 10 SSc-PAH patients, nine SSc and seven controls. In addition, 22 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of these four candidate genes were tested for association in a first set of 824 French Caucasian SSc patients (including 54 SSc-PAH) and 939 controls. The replication set consisted of 1516 European SSc (including 219 SSc-PAH) and 3129 controls from the European League Against Rheumatism Scleroderma Trials and Research group network. Results No mutation was identified by direct sequencing. However, two repertoried SNP, ENG rs35400405 and ALK1 rs2277382, were found in SSc-PAH patients only. The genotyping of 22 SNP including the latter showed that only rs2277382 was associated with SSc-PAH (p=0.0066, OR 2.13, 95% CI 1.24 to 3.65). Nevertheless, this was not replicated with the following result in combined analysis: p=0.123, OR 0.79, 95% CI 0.59 to 1.07. Conclusions This study demonstrates the lack of association between these TGF beta receptor gene polymorphisms and SSc-PAH using both sequencing and genotyping methods.