Cell polarity is essential to the function of many cell types, such as epithelial cells and neurons. The Discs large (Dlg) scaffolding protein was identified in Drosophila as a major regulator of basolateral epithelial identity. Four Dlg orthologs (Dlg1 through 4) are found in vertebrates, and mutations in the human Dlg3 gene are associated with X-linked mental retardation. We recently found that Dlg3 controls apical epithelial polarity and tight junction formation and contributes to neural induction in mouse development.(1) During evolution, Dlg3 acquired specific PPxY motifs, which bind to the WW domains of the E3 ubiquitin ligases, Nedd4 and Nedd4-2. This interaction results in monoubiquitination of Dlg3, leading to directed microtubule-dependent protein trafficking, via the exocyst complex, in different polarized cell types. Directed trafficking of Dlg3 plays an important role, during both mammalian development and in adulthood, in the establishment and maintenance of specialized apical cell junctions, such as tight junctions in epithelial cells and synapses in neurons.