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Zankl, M. ; Eckerman, K.F.* ; Bolch, W.E.*

Voxel-based models representing the male and female ICRP reference adult--the skeleton.

Radiat. Prot. Dosim. 127, 174-186 (2007)
Verlagsversion DOI
Open Access Green möglich sobald Postprint bei der ZB eingereicht worden ist.
For the forthcoming update of organ dose conversion coefficients, the International Commission on Radiological Protection (ICRP) will use voxel-based computational phantoms due to their improved anatomical realism compared with the class of mathematical or stylized phantoms used previously. According to the ICRP philosophy, these phantoms should be representative of the male and female reference adults with respect to their external dimensions, their organ topology and their organ masses. To meet these requirements, reference models of an adult male and adult female have been constructed at the GSF, based on existing voxel models segmented from tomographic images of two individuals whose body height and weight closely resemble the ICRP Publication 89 reference values. The skeleton is a highly complex structure of the body, composed of cortical bone, trabecular bone, red and yellow bone marrow and endosteum ('bone surfaces' in their older terminology). The skeleton of the reference phantoms consists of 19 individually segmented bones and bone groups. Sub-division of these bones into the above-mentioned constituents would be necessary in order to allow a direct calculation of dose to red bone marrow and endosteum. However, the dimensions of the trabeculae, the cavities containing bone marrow and the endosteum layer lining these cavities are clearly smaller than the resolution of a normal CT scan and, thus, these volumes could not be segmented in the tomographic images. As an attempt to represent the gross spatial distribution of these regions as realistically as possible at the given voxel resolution, 48 individual organ identification numbers were assigned to various parts of the skeleton: every segmented bone was subdivided into an outer shell of cortical bone and a spongious core; in the shafts of the long bones, a medullary cavity was additionally segmented. Using the data from ICRP Publication 89 on elemental tissue composition, from ICRU Report 46 on material mass densities, and from ICRP Publication 70 on the distribution of the red bone marrow among and marrow cellularity in individual bones, individual elemental compositions for these segmented bone regions were derived. Thus, most of the relevant source and target regions of the skeleton were provided. Dose calculations using these regions will be based on fluence-to-dose response functions that are multiplied with the particle fluence inside specific bone regions to give the dose quantities of interest to the target tissues.
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Publikationstyp Artikel: Journalartikel
Dokumenttyp Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Schlagwörter ICRP; reference male; reference female; skeleton
ISSN (print) / ISBN 0144-8420
e-ISSN 1742-3406
Quellenangaben Band: 127, Heft: 1-4, Seiten: 174-186 Artikelnummer: , Supplement: ,
Verlag Oxford University Press
Verlagsort Oxford
Begutachtungsstatus Peer reviewed