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Flockerzi, A.* ; Ruggieri, A.* ; Frank, O.* ; Sauter, M.* ; Maldener, E.* ; Kopper, B.* ; Wullich, B.* ; Seifarth, W.* ; Müller-Lantzsch, N.* ; Leib-Mösch, C. ; Meese, E.* ; Mayer, J.*

Expression patterns of transcribed human endogenous retrovirus HERV-K(HML-2) loci in human tissues and the need for a HERV Transcriptome Project.

BMC Genomics 9:354 (2008)
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Open Access Gold
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A significant proportion of the human genome is comprised of human endogenous retroviruses (HERVs). HERV transcripts are found in every human tissue. Expression of proviruses of the HERV-K(HML-2) family has been associated with development of human tumors, in particular germ cell tumors (GCT). Very little is known about transcriptional activity of individual HML-2 loci in human tissues, though. RESULTS: By employing private nucleotide differences between loci, we assigned approximately 1500 HML-2 cDNAs to individual HML-2 loci, identifying, in total, 23 transcriptionally active HML-2 proviruses. Several loci are active in various human tissue types. Transcription levels of some HML-2 loci appear higher than those of other loci. Several HML-2 Rec-encoding loci are expressed in GCT and non-GCT tissues. A provirus on chromosome 22q11.21 appears strongly upregulated in pathologic GCT tissues and may explain high HML-2 Gag protein levels in GCTs. Presence of Gag and Env antibodies in GCT patients is not correlated with activation of individual loci. HML-2 proviruses previously reported capable of forming an infectious HML-2 variant are transcriptionally active in germ cell tissue. Our study furthermore shows that Expressed Sequence Tag (EST) data are insufficient to describe transcriptional activity of HML-2 and other HERV loci in tissues of interest. CONCLUSION: Our, to date, largest-scale study reveals in greater detail expression patterns of individual HML-2 loci in human tissues of clinical interest. Moreover, large-scale, specialized studies are indicated to better comprehend transcriptional activity and regulation of HERVs. We thus emphasize the need for a specialized HERV Transcriptome Project.
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Publikationstyp Artikel: Journalartikel
Dokumenttyp Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Schlagwörter MULTIPLE SEQUENCE ALIGNMENT; LONG TERMINAL REPEATS; HUMAN GENE-EXPRESSION; HUMAN-BREAST-CANCER; GERM-CELL TUMORS; HUMAN GENOME; INSERTIONAL POLYMORPHISMS; FAMILY HERV-K(HML-2); IN-VIVO; PROTEIN
ISSN (print) / ISBN 1471-2164
e-ISSN 1471-2164
Zeitschrift BMC Genomics
Quellenangaben Band: 9, Heft: , Seiten: , Artikelnummer: 354 Supplement: ,
Verlag BioMed Central
Begutachtungsstatus Peer reviewed