GABA (gamma-aminobutyric acid) is a major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the central nervous system (CNS) which activates both ionotropic (GABA(A)/GABA(C)) and metabotropic (GABA(B)) receptor systems. We identified two alternatively spliced cDNA variants of the murine GABA(B) receptor 1 that are predominantly expressed in the CNS. Deduced protein structures are highly homologous to the previously characterized rat and human receptors. Comparison of the genomic structures of mouse and human revealed that alternative splicing occurred at the same position, whereas the mouse gene has an additional 5' exon. Radiation hybrid mapping, combined with database searches, indicated that the GABA(B) receptor gene (Gabbr1) is located on mouse chromosome 17, adjacent to the marker D17Mit24 in a region homologous to human chromosome 6p21.3.