Identification of transcriptional elements in large sequences is a very difficult task, as individual transcription elements (eg transcription factor binding sites,TF-sites) are not clearly correlated with regions exerting transcription control. However, elucidation of the molecular organisation of genomic regions responsible for the control of gene expression is an essential part of the efforts to annotate the genomic sequences, especially within the Human Genome Project. The task for bioinformatics in this context is twofold. The first step required is the approximate localisation of regulatory sequences in large anonymous DNA sequences. Once those regions are located, the second task is the identification of individual transcriptional control elements and correlation of a subset of such elements with transcriptional functions. Part of this second task can be achieved by constructing organisational models of regulatory regions like promoters which can reveal elements important for a gene class or the coexpression of a set of genes. Comparative genomics in non-coding regions (eg phylogenetic footprinting) is a very promising approach that allows identification of potential new regulatory elements which may be used in modelling approaches.