Olf/Ebf transcription factors have been implicated in numerous developmental processes, ranging from B-cell development to neuronal differentiation. We describe mice that carry a targeted deletion within the EbJ2 (O/E3) gene. In Ebf2-null mutants, because of defective migration of gonadotropin releasing hormone-synthesizing neurons, formation of the neuroendocrine axis (which is essential for pubertal development) is impaired, leading to secondary hypogonadism. In addition, Ebf2(-/-) peripheral nerves feature defective axon sorting, hypomyelination, segmental dysmyelination and axonal damage, accompanied by a sharp decrease in motor nerve conduction velocity. Ebf2-null mice reveal a novel genetic cause of hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and peripheral neuropathy in the mouse, disclosing an important role for Ebf2 in neuronal migration and nerve development.