Open Access Green as soon as Postprint is submitted to ZB.
Surface modification and size dependence in particle translocation during early embryonic development.
Inhal. Toxicol. 21, (Suppl.1), 92-96 (2009)
Since the mid-1990 s, the number of studies linking air pollutants to preterm and low birth weight, as well as to cardiac birth defects, has grown steadily each year. The critical period in the development of mouse embryos begins with the commencement of gastrulation at day 7.5 of gestation. Our aim is to examine the role of particles size and surface modification in particle translocation during this early embryonic development. Fluorescent polystyrene particles (PS) were employed because they offer an efficient and safe tracking method. Pregnant female mice were sacrificed at 7.5 days of gestation. After cutting open the deciduas, the parietal endoderm was carefully separated and removed. Different sizes of amine- and carboxyl-modified PS beads were injected via the extraembryonic tissue. The embryos were incubated for 12 h, and were investigated under fluorescent microscopy, confocal microscopy, and mesoscopic fluorescence tomography. The results show that 20-nm carboxylic PS distribute in the embryonic and extraembryonic germ layers of ectoderm, mesoderm, and endoderm. Moreover, when the particles are bigger than 100 nm, PS accumulate in extraembryonic tissue, but nevertheless 200-nm amine-modified particles can pass into the embryos. Interestingly, a growth inhibition was observed in the embryos containing nanoparticles. Finally, the stronger translocation effect is associated with amine-modified PS beads (200 nm) instead of the smaller (20 nm, 100 nm) carboxyl ones.
Edit extra informations Login
Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords Fluorescent nanoparticles; nanotoxicology; embryonic development; particles transaction; fluorescent tomogrpaphy