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Metabolic and immunomodulatory effects of n-3 fatty acids are different in mesenteric and epididymal adipose tissue of diet-induced obese mice.
Am. J. Physiol. Endocrinol. Metab. 304, E1140-E1156 (2013)
In studies emphasizing antiobesogenic and anti-inflammatory effects of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-n-3 PUFA), diets with very high fat content, not well-defined fat quality, and extreme n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios have been applied frequently. Additionally, comparative analyses of visceral adipose tissues (VAT) were neglected. Considering the link of visceral obesity to insulin resistance or inflammatory bowel diseases, we hypothesized that VAT, especially mesenteric adipose tissue (MAT), may exhibit differential responsiveness to diets through modulation of metabolic and inflammatory processes. Here, we aimed to assess dietary LC-n-3 PUFA effects on MAT and epididymal adipose tissue (EAT) and on MAT-adjacent liver and intestine in diet-induced obese mice fed defined soybean/palm oil-based diets. High-fat (HF) and LC-n-3 PUFA-enriched high-fat diet (HF/n-3) contained moderately high fat with unbalanced and balanced n-6/n-3 PUFA ratios, respectively. Body composition/organ analyses, glucose tolerance test, measurements of insulin, lipids, mRNA and protein expression, and immunohistochemistry were applied. Compared with HF, HF/n-3 mice showed reduced fat mass, smaller adipocytes in MAT than EAT, improved insulin level, and lower hepatic triacylglycerol and plasma NEFA levels, consistent with liver and brown fat gene expression. Gene expression arrays pointed to immune cell activation in MAT and alleviation of intestinal endothelial cell activation. Validations demonstrated simultaneously upregulated pro- (TNF alpha, MCP-1) and anti-inflammatory (IL-10) cytokines and M1/M2-macrophage markers in VAT and reduced CD4/CD8 alpha expression in MAT and spleen. Our data revealed differential responsiveness to diets for VAT through preferentially metabolic alterations in MAT and inflammatory processes in EAT. LC-n-3 PUFA effects were pro- and anti-inflammatory and disclose T cell-immunosuppressive potential.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords Obesity ; Mesenteric Adipose Tissue ; Metabolism ; Inflammation ; Macrophages; Tumor-necrosis-factor ; Insulin-resistance ; Gene-expression ; Diabetic Mice ; Macrophage Polarization ; Adipocyte Size ; Lymph-nodes ; Resolvin D1 ; Fish-oil ; T-cells
ISSN (print) / ISBN 0193-1849
Quellenangaben Volume: 304, Issue: 11, Pages: E1140-E1156
Publisher American Physiological Society
Reviewing status Peer reviewed
Institute(s) Institute of Virology (VIRO)