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Krajewski, M.P.* ; Kanawati, B. ; Fekete, A. ; Kowalski, N.* ; Schmitt-Kopplin, P. ; Grill, E.*

Analysis of Arabidopsis glutathione-transferases in yeast.

Phytochemistry 91, 198-207 (2013)
Verlagsversion Volltext DOI
Open Access Green möglich sobald Postprint bei der ZB eingereicht worden ist.
The genome of Arabidopsis thaliana encodes 54 functional glutathione transferases (GSTs), classified in seven clades. Although plant GSTs have been implicated in the detoxification of xenobiotics, such as herbicides, extensive redundancy within this large gene family impedes a functional analysis in planta. In this study, a GST-deficient yeast strain was established as a system for analyzing plant GSTs that allows screening for GST substrates and identifying substrate preferences within the plant GST family. To this end, five yeast genes encoding GSTs and GST-related proteins were simultaneously disrupted. The resulting yeast quintuple mutant showed a strongly reduced conjugation of the GST substrates 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) and 4-chloro-7-nitro-2,1,3-benzoxadiazole (NBD-Cl). Consistently, the quintuple mutant was hypersensitive to CDNB, and this phenotype was complemented by the inducible expression of Arabidopsis GSTs. The conjugating activity of the plant GSTs was assessed by in vitro enzymatic assays and via analysis of exposed yeast cells. The formation of glutathione adducts with dinitrobenzene was unequivocally verified by stable isotope labeling and subsequent accurate ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (ICR-FTMS). Analysis of Arabidopsis GSTs encompassing six clades and 42 members demonstrated functional expression in yeast by using CDNB and NBD-Cl as model substrates. Subsequently, the established yeast system was explored for its potential to screen the Arabidopsis GST family for conjugation of the fungicide anilazine. Thirty Arabidopsis GSTs were identified that conferred increased levels of glutathionylated anilazine. Efficient anilazine conjugation was observed in the presence of the phi, tau, and theta clade GSTs including AtGSTF2, AtGSTF4, AtGSTF6, AtGSTF8, AtGSTF10, and AtGSTT2, none of which had previously been known to contribute to fungicide detoxification. ICR-FTMS analysis of yeast extracts allowed the simultaneous detection and semiquantification of anilazine conjugates as well as catabolites.
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Publikationstyp Artikel: Journalartikel
Dokumenttyp Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Schlagwörter Fungicide; Detoxification; Xenobiotics; ICR-FTMS; Isotope labeling; Herbicide Safener Fenclorim ; S-transferases ; Phytochelatin Synthase ; Saccharomyces-cerevisiae ; Proteomic Analysis ; Thaliana ; Degradation ; Catabolism ; Family ; Biosynthesis
ISSN (print) / ISBN 0031-9422
e-ISSN 1873-3700
Zeitschrift Phytochemistry
Quellenangaben Band: 91, Heft: , Seiten: 198-207 Artikelnummer: , Supplement: ,
Verlag Elsevier
Begutachtungsstatus Peer reviewed