For decades, glucose, hemoglobin A1c, insulin, and C peptide have been the laboratory tests of choice to detect and monitor diabetes (1). However, these tests do not identify individuals at risk for developing type 2 diabetes (T2Dm)4 (so-called prediabetic individuals and the subphenotypes therein), which would be a prerequisite for individualized prevention. Nor are these parameters suitable to identify T2Dm subphenotypes, a prerequisite for individualized therapeutic interventions. The oral glucose tolerance test (oGTT) is still the only means for the early and reliable identification of people in the prediabetic phase with impaired glucose tolerance (IGT). This procedure, however, is very time-consuming and expensive and is unsuitable as a screening method in a doctor′s office. Hence, there is an urgent need for innovative laboratory tests to simplify the early detection of alterations in glucose metabolism.