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Kirchner, M. ; Fegg, W. ; Römmelt, H.* ; Leuchner, M.* ; Ries, L.* ; Zimmermann, R. ; Michalke, B. ; Wallasch, M.* ; Maguhn, J. ; Faus-Kessler, T. ; Jakobi, G.

Nitrogen deposition along differently exposed slopes in the Bavarian Alps.

Sci. Total Environ. 470-471, 895-906 (2014)
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The Alps are affected by high nitrogen deposition, particularly in the fringe of the Northern and Southern Alps. In the framework of a two-year monitoring study performed in 2010 and 2011, we investigated the ammonia and nitrogen dioxide air concentration and ammonium and nitrate deposition at different altitudes between 700 and 1600ma.s.l. in the Garmisch-Partenkirchen district in the Upper Bavaria region (Germany). Four-weekly measurements of deposition collected with bulk open field samplers and under-crown were performed in a profile perpendicular to the axis of the Loisach valley; measurements were conducted at eight sites. Whereas open field deposition ranged from 5 to 11kgha(-1)a(-1), nitrogen throughfall has reached up to 21kgha(-1)a(-1). Data from the valley and the slopes were compared with measurements performed on the platform of the Environmental Research Station Schneefernerhaus (Zugspitze) at an altitude of 2650ma.s.l. For the rough estimation of the total yearly deposition rate of nitrogen, the canopy uptake model was applied. By regarding nitrogen uptake by the trees, total deposition can exceed the throughfall in all sites by up to 50%. Additionally, we estimated the total deposition from the sum of wet and dry deposition. On the one side, the wet deposition could be extrapolated from the open field deposition. On the other side, we used the inferential method to calculate the dry deposition on the basis of NH3 and NO2 air concentrations and their literature based deposition velocities. Since fixed deposition velocities are inappropriate particularly in complex orography, we tried to find correction factors based upon terrain characteristics and meteorological considerations. Temperature monitoring at the eight sites and wind measurements at two sites provided some evidence for the semi-empirical parameterization. Due to numerous imponderabilities, the results of the two methods were not consistent for all sites.
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Publikationstyp Artikel: Journalartikel
Dokumenttyp Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Schlagwörter Nitrogen; Throughfall deposition; Spruce forest; Vertical profiles; Alps; Canopy Exchange Processes; Research Lwf Plots; Dry Deposition; Atmospheric Deposition; Spruce Forest; Nitric-acid; Throughfall Measurements; Southern Bavaria; Wet Deposition; Ammonia
ISSN (print) / ISBN 0048-9697
e-ISSN 1879-1026
Quellenangaben Band: 470-471, Heft: , Seiten: 895-906 Artikelnummer: , Supplement: ,
Verlag Elsevier
Verlagsort Amsterdam
Begutachtungsstatus Peer reviewed