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Hertz-Schünemann, R.* ; Dorfner, R. ; Yeretzian, C.* ; Streibel, T. ; Zimmermann, R.

On-line process monitoring of coffee roasting by resonant laser ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry: Bridging the gap from industrial batch roasting to flavour formation inside an individual coffee bean.

J. Mass Spectrom. 48, 1253-1265 (2013)
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Resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (REMPI-TOFMS) enables the fast and sensitive on-line monitoring of volatile organic compounds (VOC) formed during coffee roasting. On the one hand, REMPI-TOFMS was applied to monitor roasting gases of an industrial roaster (1500 kg/h capacity), with the aim of determining the roast degree in real-time from the transient chemical signature of VOCs. On the other hand, a previously developed -probe sampling device was used to analyse roasting gases from individual coffee beans. The aim was to explore fundamental processes at the individual bean level and link these to phenomena at the batch level. The pioneering single-bean experiments were conducted in two configurations: (1) VOCs formed inside a bean were sampled in situ, i.e. via a drilled -hole, from the interior, using a -probe (inside). (2) VOCs were sampled on-line in close vicinity of a single coffee bean's surface (outside). The focus was on VOCs originating from hydrolysis and pyrolytic degradation of chlorogenic acids, like feruloyl quinic acid and caffeoyl quinic acid. The single bean experiments revealed interesting phenomena. First, differences in time-intensity profiles between inside versus outside (time shift of maximum) were observed and tentatively linked to the permeability of the bean's cell walls material. Second, sharp bursts of some VOCs were observed, while others did exhibit smooth release curves. It is believed that these reflect a direct observation of bean popping during roasting. Finally, discrimination between Coffea arabica and Coffea canephora was demonstrated based on high-mass volatile markers, exclusively present in spectra of Coffea arabica.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords Coffee ; Coffee Roasting ; Aroma ; Resonance Enhanced Multiphoto-ionisation/rempi ; Process Monitoring; Single-photon Ionization ; Polycyclic Aromatic-hydrocarbons ; Performance Liquid-chromatography ; Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization ; Electron-impact Ionization ; Volatile Organic-compounds ; Robusta Coffee ; Raman-spectroscopy ; Green Arabica ; Ptr-ms
ISSN (print) / ISBN 1076-5174
e-ISSN 1096-9888
Quellenangaben Volume: 48, Issue: 12, Pages: 1253-1265 Article Number: , Supplement: ,
Publisher Wiley
Reviewing status Peer reviewed