A complex and still not comprehensively resolved panel of transmembrane proteins regulates the outgrowth and the subsequent morphological and functional development of neuronal processes. In order to gain a more detailed description of these events at the molecular level, we have developed a cell surface biotinylation assay to isolate, detect, and quantify neuronal membrane proteins. When we applied our assay to investigate neuron maturation in vitro, we identified 439 differentially expressed proteins, including 20 members of the immunoglobulin superfamily. Among these candidates, we focused on Negr1, a poorly described cell adhesion molecule. We demonstrated that Negr1 controls the development of neurite arborization in vitro and in vivo. Given the tight correlation existing among synaptic cell adhesion molecules, neuron maturation, and a number of neurological disorders, our assay results are a useful tool that can be used to support the understanding of the molecular bases of physiological and pathological brain function.