The 13th International Congress on Combustion By-Products and their Health Effects was held in New Orleans, Louisiana from May 15 to 18, 2013. The congress, sponsored by the Superfund Research Program, National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and National Science Foundation, brought together international academic and government researchers, engineers, scientists, and policymakers. With industrial growth, increased power needs and generation and coal consumption and their concomitant emissions, pernicious health effects associated with exposures to these emissions are on the rise. This congress provides a unique platform for interdisciplinary exchange and discussion of these topics. The formation, conversion, control, and health effects of combustion by-products, including particulate matter and associated heavy metals, persistent organic pollutants, and environmentally persistent free radicals, were discussed during the congress. This review will summarize and discuss the implications of the data presented.