Normal brain function requires balanced development of excitatory and inhibitory synapses. An imbalance in synaptic transmission underlies many brain disorders such as epilepsy, schizophrenia, and autism. Compared with excitatory synapses, relatively little is known about the molecular control of inhibitory synapse development. We used a genetic approach in mice to identify the Ig superfamily member IgSF9/Dasm1 as a candidate homophilic synaptic adhesion protein that regulates inhibitory synapse development. IgSF9 is expressed in pyramidal cells and subsets of interneurons in the CA1 region of hippocampus. Electrophysiological recordings of acute hippocampal slices revealed that genetic inactivation of the IgSF9 gene resulted in fewer functional inhibitory synapses; however, the strength of the remaining synapses was unaltered. These physiological abnormalities were correlated with decreased expression of inhibitory synapse markers in IgSF9.