Respiratory diseases are an increasing burden for the ageing population. Although our understanding of these diseases has improved significantly over the past decades, diagnostic and therapeutic options for treating lung diseases, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and lung cancer, remain limited. Multidisciplinary approaches that bridge the gap between medicinal and materials sciences will likely contribute to promising new therapeutic and diagnostic solutions. One such multidisciplinary approach is the use of nanoparticles as carriers for the delivery of drugs. The advantages of using nanoparticles to deliver drugs include: increased drug concentration at the disease site; minimised drug degradation and loss; ease of creating inhalable formulations; and the possibility of specific cell targeting. This article gives a brief overview on the emerging field of nanocarriers as drug delivery vehicles for the treatment of lung diseases.