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Associations between particulate matter elements and early-life pneumonia in seven birth cohorts: Results from the ESCAPE and TRANSPHORM projects.
Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health 217, 819-829 (2014)
Evidence for a role of long-term particulate matter exposure on acute respiratory infections is growing. However, which components of particulate matter may be causative remains largely unknown. We assessed associations between eight particulate matter elements and early-life pneumonia in seven birth cohort studies (Ntotal=15,980): BAMSE (Sweden), GASPII (Italy), GINIplus and LISAplus (Germany), INMA (Spain), MAAS (United Kingdom) and PIAMA (The Netherlands). Annual average exposure to copper, iron, potassium, nickel, sulfur, silicon, vanadium and zinc, each respectively derived from particles with aerodynamic diameters≤10μm (PM10) and 2.5μm (PM2.5), were estimated using standardized land use regression models and assigned to birth addresses. Cohort-specific associations between these exposures and parental reports of physician-diagnosed pneumonia between birth and two years were assessed using logistic regression models adjusted for host and environmental covariates and total PM10 or PM2.5 mass. Combined estimates were calculated using random-effects meta-analysis. There was substantial within and between-cohort variability in element concentrations. In the adjusted meta-analysis, pneumonia was weakly associated with zinc derived from PM10 (OR: 1.47 (95% CI: 0.99, 2.18) per 20ng/m(3) increase). No other associations with the other elements were consistently observed. The independent effect of particulate matter mass remained after adjustment for element concentrations. In conclusion, associations between particulate matter mass exposure and pneumonia were not explained by the elements we investigated. Zinc from PM10 was the only element which appeared independently associated with a higher risk of early-life pneumonia. As zinc is primarily attributable to non-tailpipe traffic emissions, these results may suggest a potential adverse effect of non-tailpipe emissions on health.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords Birth Cohort ; Childhood Pneumonia ; Elemental Composition ; Meta-analysis ; Particulate Matter ; Zinc; Use Regression-models; Air-pollution; Respiratory-infections; Chemical-composition; Pm2.5 Absorbency; Children; Particles; Asthma; Areas; Pm10
ISSN (print) / ISBN 1438-4639
Quellenangaben Volume: 217, Issue: 8, Pages: 819-829
Publishing Place Amsterdam ; Boston, Mass. ; London ; New York, NY ; Oxford ; Paris ; Philadelphia, Pa. ; San Diego, Calif. ; St. Louis, Mo. ; München
Reviewing status Peer reviewed