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Arabidopsis ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 promotes systemic acquired resistance via azelaic acid and its precursor 9-oxo nonanoic acid.
J. Exp. Bot. 65, 5919-5931 (2014)
Systemic acquired resistance (SAR) is a form of inducible disease resistance that depends on salicylic acid and its upstream regulator ENHANCED DISEASE SUSCEPTIBILITY1 (EDS1). Although local Arabidopsis thaliana defence responses activated by the Pseudomonas syringae effector protein AvrRpm1 are intact in eds1 mutant plants, SAR signal generation is abolished. Here, the SAR-specific phenotype of the eds1 mutant is utilized to identify metabolites that contribute to SAR. To this end, SAR bioassay-assisted fractionation of extracts from the wild type compared with eds1 mutant plants that conditionally express AvrRpm1 was performed. Using high-performance liquid chromatography followed by mass spectrometry, systemic immunity was associated with the accumulation of 60 metabolites, including the putative SAR signal azelaic acid (AzA) and its precursors 9-hydroperoxy octadecadienoic acid (9-HPOD) and 9-oxo nonanoic acid (ONA). Exogenous ONA induced SAR in systemic untreated leaves when applied at a 4-fold lower concentration than AzA. The data suggest that in planta oxidation of ONA to AzA might be partially responsible for this response and provide further evidence that AzA mobilizes Arabidopsis immunity in a concentration-dependent manner. The AzA fragmentation product pimelic acid did not induce SAR. The results link the C9 lipid peroxidation products ONA and AzA with systemic rather than local resistance and suggest that EDS1 directly or indirectly promotes the accumulation of ONA, AzA, or one or more of their common precursors possibly by activating one or more pathways that either result in the release of these compounds from galactolipids or promote lipid peroxidation.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords 9-oxo Nonanoic Acid ; Arabidopsis Thaliana ; Eds1 ; Azelaic Acid ; Lipid Peroxidation ; Systemic Acquired Resistance; Plant Innate Immunity; Salicylic-acid; Cell-death; Essential Component; Pathogen Effectors; Signaling Pathways; Lipid-peroxidation; Monooxygenase Fmo1; Stress Responses; Defense
ISSN (print) / ISBN 0022-0957
Journal Journal of Experimental Botany
Quellenangaben Volume: 65, Issue: 20, Pages: 5919-5931
Publisher Oxford University Press
Publishing Place Oxford
Reviewing status Peer reviewed