The MADEIRA Project (Minimizing Activity and Dose with Enhanced Image quality by Radiopharmaceutical Administrations), aims to improve the efficacy and safety of 3D functional imaging by optimizing, among others, the knowledge of the temporal variation of the radiopharmaceuticals' uptake in and clearance from tumor and healthy tissues. With the help of compartmental modeling it is intended to optimize the time schedule for data collection and improve the evaluation of the organ doses to the patients. Administration of 18F-choline to screen for recurrence or the occurrence of metastases in prostate cancer patients is one of the diagnostic applications under consideration in the frame of the project. PET and CT images have been acquired up to four hours after injection of 18F-choline. Additionally blood and urine samples have been collected and measured in a gamma counter. The radioactivity concentration in different organs and data of plasma clearance and elimination into urine were used to set-up a compartmental model of the biokinetics of the radiopharmaceutical. It features a central compartment (blood) exchanging with organs. The structure describes explicitly liver, kidneys, spleen, plasma and bladder as separate units with a forcing function approach. The model is presented together with an evaluation of the individual and population kinetic parameters, and a revised time schedule for data collection is proposed. This optimized time schedule will be validated in a further set of patient studies.