Coronary artery disease (CAD) and myocardial infarction (MI) are caused in part by genetic factors. Recently, the MEF2A gene was linked to MI/CAD in a single pedigree with autosomal-dominant pattern of inheritance. In addition, genetic variants within the gene have been associated with MI in case-control settings, producing inconsistent results. METHODS AND RESULTS: The MEF2A gene was sequenced in MI patients from 23 MI families (> or =5 affected members per family), but no mutation was identified in any of these extended families. Moreover, the Pro279Leu variant in exon 7 was analyzed in 1181 unrelated MI patients with a positive family history for MI/CAD, in 533 patients with sporadic MI, and in 2 control populations (n=1021 and n=1055), showing no evidence for association with MI/CAD. In addition, a (CAG)n repeat in exon 11 was genotyped in 543 sporadic MI patients and in 1190 controls without evidence for association with MI. Finally, analyzing 11 single-nucleotide polymorphisms from the GeneChip Mapping 500K Array, genotyped in 1644 controls and 753 cases, failed to provide evidence for association (region-wide P=0.23). CONCLUSIONS: Studying independent samples of >1700 MI patients, 2 large control populations, and multiple families with apparently mendelian inheritance of the disease, we found no evidence for any linkage or association signal in the MEF2A gene.