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Personal exposure to ultrafine particles: Two-level statistical modeling of background exposure and time-activity patterns during three seasons.
J. Expo. Sci. Environ. Epidemiol. 26, 17-25 (2014)
Personal exposure to air pollution is associated with time- and location-specific factors including indoor and outdoor air pollution, meteorology and time activities. Our investigation aims at the description and identification of factors determining personal exposure to particle number concentration (PNC) in everyday situations. Ten volunteers recorded their personal exposure to PNC and kept an activity diary in three different seasons besides stationary measurements of ambient air pollution and meteorology. Background exposure to PNC was modelled using the most predictive variables. In a second step, the effects of the activities were calculated adjusted for the background exposure. The average personal PNC level was highest in winter and was three times higher than the mean stationary PNC level while staying indoors and two times higher while staying outdoors. Personal indoor PNC levels were significantly increased during the use of candles, cooking and the occurrence of smell of food. High stationary outdoor PNC levels and low dew point temperatures were associated with increased personal outdoor PNC levels. Times spent in public transport were associated with lower personal PNC levels than other times spent in transportation. Personal PNC levels in everyday situations exhibited a large variability because of seasonal, microenvironment-specific and activity-specific influences.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords Activity Diary ; Activity-related Exposure ; Background Exposure ; Particle Number Concentration ; Personal Exposure ; Ultrafine Particles
ISSN (print) / ISBN 1559-0631
Quellenangaben Volume: 26, Issue: 1, Pages: 17-25
Publisher Nature Publishing Group
Publishing Place Basingstoke
Reviewing status Peer reviewed
Institute(s) Institute of Epidemiology II (EPI2)