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Gu, J. ; Kraus, U. ; Schneider, A.E. ; Hampel, R. ; Pitz, M.* ; Breitner, S. ; Wolf, K. ; Hänninen, O.* ; Peters, A. ; Cyrys, J.

Personal day-time exposure to ultrafine particles in different microenvironments.

Int. J. Hyg. Environ. Health 218, 188-195 (2015)
Open Access Green as soon as Postprint is submitted to ZB.
In order to assess the personal exposure to ultrafine particles (UFP) during individual day-time activities and to investigate the impact of different microenvironments on exposure, we measured personal exposure to particle number concentrations (PNC), a surrogate for UFP, among 112 non-smoking participants in Augsburg, Germany over a nearly two-year period from March 2007 to December 2008. We obtained 337 personal PNC measurements from 112 participants together with dairies of their activities and locations. The measurements lasted on average 5.5 h and contained on average 330 observations. In addition, ambient PNC were measured at an urban background stationary monitoring site. Personal PNC were highly variable between measurements (IQR of mean: 11 780–24 650 cm−3) and also within a single measurement. Outdoor personal PNC in traffic environments were about two times higher than in non-traffic environments. Higher indoor personal PNC were associated with activities like cooking, being in a bistro or exposure to passive smoking. Overall, personal and stationary PNC were weakly to moderately correlated (r < 0.41). Personal PNC were much higher than stationary PNC in traffic (ratio: 1.5), when shopping (ratio: 2.4), and indoors with water vapor (ratio: 2.5). Additive mixed models were applied to predict personal PNC by participants’ activities and locations. Traffic microenvironments were significant determinants for outdoor personal PNC. Being in a bistro, passive smoking, and cooking contributed significantly to an increased indoor personal PNC.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords Personal exposure; Air pollution; Particulate matter; Number concentration; Time-activity; Particulate Air-pollution; Size Distribution; Epidemiologic Evidence; Black Carbon; Germany; Number; Health; Variability; Augsburg; Indoor
ISSN (print) / ISBN 1438-4639
e-ISSN 1618-131X
Quellenangaben Volume: 218, Issue: 2, Pages: 188-195 Article Number: , Supplement: ,
Publisher Elsevier
Publishing Place Amsterdam ; Boston, Mass. ; London ; New York, NY ; Oxford ; Paris ; Philadelphia, Pa. ; San Diego, Calif. ; St. Louis, Mo. ; München
Reviewing status Peer reviewed