Relatively little is known about long term effects of wood smoke on population health. A wood combustion marker - levoglucosan - was measured using a standardized sampling and measurement method in four European study areas (Oslo, The Netherlands, Munich/Augsburg, Catalonia) to assess within and between study area spatial variation. Levoglucosan was analyzed in addition to: PM2.5, PM2.5 absorbance, PM10, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), nitrogen oxides (NOx), elemental and organic carbon (EC/OC), hopanes, steranes and elemental composition. Measurements were conducted at street, urban and regional background sites. Three two-week samples were taken per site and the annual average concentrations of pollutants were calculated using continuous measurements at one background reference site. Land use regression (LUR) models were developed to explain the spatial variation of levoglucosan. Much larger within than between study area contrast in levoglucosan concentration was found. Spatial variation patterns differed from other measured pollutants: PM2.5, NOx and EC. Levoglucosan had the highest spatial correlation with σPAH (r. = 0.65) and the lowest with traffic markers - NOx, σhopanes/steranes (r. = -. 0.22). Levoglucosan concentrations in the cold (heating) period were between 3 and 20 times higher compared to the warm period. The contribution of wood-smoke calculated based on levoglucosan measurements and previous European emission data to OC and PM2.5 mass was 13 to 28% and 3 to 9% respectively in the full year. Larger contributions were calculated for the cold period.The median model R2 of the LUR models was 60%. The LUR models included population and natural land related variables. In conclusion, substantial spatial variability was found in levoglucosan concentrations within study areas. Wood smoke contributed substantially to especially wintertime PM2.5 OC and mass. The low to moderate correlation with PM2.5 mass and traffic markers offers the potential to assess health effects of wood smoke separate from traffic-related air pollution.