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Arterial flow reduces oxidative stress via an antioxidant response element and Oct-1 binding site within the NADPH oxidase 4 promoter in endothelial cells.
Basic Res. Cardiol. 106, 551-561 (2011)
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The main sources of oxidative stress in the vessel wall are nicotine adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase (Nox) complexes. The endothelium mainly expresses the Nox4-containing complex; however, the mechanism by which shear stress in endothelial cells regulates Nox4 is not well understood. This study demonstrates that long-term application of arterial laminar shear stress using a cone-and-plate viscometer reduces endothelial superoxide anion formation and Nox4 expression. In primary human endothelial cells, we identified a 47 bp 5'-untranslated region of Nox4 mRNA by 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA ends (5'-RACE) PCR. Cloning and functional analysis of human Nox4 promoter revealed a range between -1,490 and -1,310 bp responsible for flow-dependent downregulation. Mutation of an overlapping antioxidative response element (ARE)-like and Oct-1 binding site at -1,376 bp eliminated shear stress-dependent Nox4 downregulation. Consistent with these observations, electrophoretic mobility shift assays (EMSA) demonstrated an enhanced shear stress-dependent binding of Nox4 oligonucleotide containing the ARE-like/Oct-1 binding site, which could be inhibited by specific antibodies against the transcription factors nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) and octamer transcription factor 1 (Oct-1). Furthermore, shear stress caused the translocation of Nrf2 and Oct-1 from the cytoplasm to the nucleus. Knockdown of Nrf2 by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) increased Nox4 expression twofold, indicating a direct cross-talk between Nrf2 and Nox4. In conclusion, an ARE-like/Oct-1 binding site was noticed to be essential for shear stress-dependent downregulation of Nox4. This novel mechanism may be involved in the flow-dependent downregulation of endothelial superoxide anion formation.
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Publikationstyp Artikel: Journalartikel
Dokumenttyp Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
ISSN (print) / ISBN 0300-8428
Zeitschrift Basic Research in Cardiology
Quellenangaben Band: 106, Heft: 4, Seiten: 551-561
Institut(e) Institute for Pancreatic Beta Cell Research (IPI)