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Speciation study of trace elements in surface sediment of Winam Gulf, Lake Victoria, by sequential extraction, aqua-regia acid digestion, and ICP-OES.
Toxicol. Environ. Chem. 96, 1489-1500 (2015)
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© 2015 Taylor & Francis The speciation of trace metals in surface sediment in Kisumu Carwash area of Winam Gulf, was studied and results compared with those found at Usoma beach which was found to be several orders of magnitude less polluted. High proportions of the metals were bioavailable (fractions 1–6) with BA% ranging from 21.7% (Al) to 94.5% (Pb) at Carwash and 19.6% (Al) to ∼100% (for Cd and Pb) at Usoma beach. The readily mobilizable fraction (fractions 1–4) decreased in the order: Pb > Mn > Sn > Cu > Co > Zn > Mg > Cd > Mo > Ni > Cr > Fe > Al at Carwash and Mn > Mo > Sn > Pb > Cd > Mg > Cu > Zn > Co > Ni > Fe > Cr > Al at Usoma beach. The total Zn, Cd, Cr, and Cu sediment concentrations at Carwash were higher than the threshold effect concentrations (TECs), although their bioavailable concentrations were lower than these limits. Both the total and bioavailable concentrations of Pb in surface sediment at Kisumu Carwash area were higher than the TEC threshold limit indicating significant contamination from this heavy metal. Although there was a general good agreement on data obtained by sequential extraction as compared with those obtained by direct aqua-regia digestion, there were large discrepancies for some specific metal analytes which could be accounted for in terms of analytical variations and lack of uniformity in physical and chemical composition of the sediment samples analyzed.
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Publikationstyp Artikel: Journalartikel
Dokumenttyp Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Schlagwörter Bioavailable Fractions ; Lake Sediment ; Speciation ; Trace Metals; Heavy-metals; Marine-sediments; South-africa; Water; Bioavailability; Fractionation; Estuary; Phases; Soils; Zn
ISSN (print) / ISBN 0277-2248
Zeitschrift Toxicological and Environmental Chemistry
Quellenangaben Band: 96, Heft: 10, Seiten: 1489-1500
Verlag Taylor & Francis