The aim of the present study was to determine the internal dose in humans after the ingestion of soil highly contaminated with uranium. Therefore, an in vitro solubility assay was performed to estimate the bioaccessibility of uranium for two types of soil. Based on the results, the corresponding bioavailabilities were assessed by using a recently published method. Finally, these bioavailability data were used together with the biokinetic model of uranium to assess the internal doses for a hypothetical but realistic scenario characterized by a daily ingestion of 10 mg of soil over 1 year. The investigated soil samples were from two former uranium mining sites of Germany with (238)U concentrations of about 460 and 550 mg/kg. For these soils, the bioavailabilities of (238)U were quantified as 0.18 and 0.28 % (geometric mean) with 2.5th percentiles of 0.02 and 0.03 % and 97.5th percentiles of 1.48 and 2.34 %, respectively. The corresponding calculated annual committed effective doses for the assumed scenario were 0.4 and 0.6 µSv (GM) with 2.5th percentiles of 0.2 and 0.3 µSv and 97.5th percentiles of 1.6 and 3.0 µSv, respectively. These annual committed effective doses are similar to those from natural uranium intake by food and drinking water, which is estimated to be 0.5 µSv. Based on the present experimental data and the selected ingestion scenario, the investigated soils-although highly contaminated with uranium-are not expected to pose any major health risk to humans related to radiation.