While it is widely accepted that ectopic lipid accumulation in the liver is associated with hepatic insulin resistance, the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been well characterized. Here we employed time resolved quantitative proteomic profiling of mice fed a high fat diet to determine which pathways were affected during the transition of the liver to an insulin-resistant state. We identified several metabolic pathways underlying altered protein expression. In order to test the functional impact of a critical subset of these alterations, we focused on the epoxyeicosatrienoic acid (EET) eicosanoid pathway, whose deregulation coincided with the onset of hepatic insulin resistance. These results suggested that EETs may be positive modulators of hepatic insulin signaling. Analyzing EET activity in primary hepatocytes, we found that EETs enhance insulin signaling on the level of Akt. In contrast, EETs did not influence insulin receptor or insulin receptor substrate-1 phosphorylation. This effect was mediated through the eicosanoids, as overexpression of the deregulated enzymes in absence of arachidonic acid had no impact on insulin signaling. The stimulation of insulin signaling by EETs and depression of the pathway in insulin resistant liver suggest a likely role in hepatic insulin resistance. Our findings support therapeutic potential for inhibiting EET degradation.