We examined the association of baseline serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) with change in weight and total body fat in a cohort of community-dwelling older adults from Southern Germany. A total of 735 participants of the population-based KORA-Age Study (2009-2012), aged 65-90 years, were followed for 2.9±0.1 years. Body fat was assessed with bioelectrical impedance analysis. Linear and multinomial logistic models, adjusted for baseline covariables, were used to examine the association of 25(OH)D with percentage weight and body fat change during follow-up. 25(OH)D levels were not associated with overall weight change or body fat loss. Higher 25(OH)D levels were associated with a lower likelihood of having gained >3% of body fat in women but not in men. As we cannot exclude residual confounding by outdoor physical activity and diet, our results are not sufficient to support a causal role of 25(OH)D in the etiology of obesity in Caucasian older adults.