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Schmid, T.E.* ; Friedland, W. ; Greubel, C.* ; Girst, S.* ; Reindl, J.* ; Siebenwirth, C.* ; Ilicic, K.* ; Schmid, E.* ; Multhoff, G. ; Schmitt, E. ; Kundrát, P. ; Dollinger, G.*

Sub-micrometer 20 MeV protons or 45 MeV lithium spot irradiation enhances yields of dicentric chromosomes due to clustering of DNA double-strand breaks.

Mutat. Res. - Gen. Tox. Environ. Mutag. 793, 30-40 (2015)
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In conventional experiments on biological effects of radiation types of diverse quality, micrometer-scale double-strand break (DSB) clustering is inherently interlinked with clustering of energy deposition events on nanometer scale relevant for DSB induction. Due to this limitation, the role of the micrometer and nanometer scales in diverse biological endpoints cannot be fully separated. To address this issue, hybrid human-hamster AL cells have been irradiated with 45 MeV (60 keV/μm) lithium ions or 20 MeV (2.6 keV/μm) protons quasi-homogeneously distributed or focused to 0.5 × 1 μm2 spots on regular matrix patterns (point distances up to 10.6 × 10.6 μm), with pre-defined particle numbers per spot to provide the same mean dose of 1.7 Gy. The yields of dicentrics and their distribution among cells have been scored. In parallel, track-structure based simulations of DSB induction and chromosome aberration formation with PARTRAC have been performed. The results show that the sub-micrometer beam focusing does not enhance DSB yields, but significantly affects the DSB distribution within the nucleus and increases the chance to form DSB pairs in close proximity, which may lead to increased yields of chromosome aberrations. Indeed, the experiments show that focusing 20 lithium ions or 451 protons per spot on a 10.6 μm grid induces two or three times more dicentrics, respectively, than a quasi-homogenous irradiation. The simulations reproduce the data in part, but in part suggest more complex behavior such as saturation or overkill not seen in the experiments. The direct experimental demonstration that sub-micrometer clustering of DSB plays a critical role in the induction of dicentrics improves the knowledge on the mechanisms by which these lethal lesions arise, and indicates how the assumptions of the biophysical model could be improved. It also provides a better understanding of the increased biological effectiveness of high-LET radiation.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords Microbeam; Ion irradiation; Dicentric assay; Mathematical modeling; DSB distribution
ISSN (print) / ISBN 1383-5718
e-ISSN 1388-2120
Quellenangaben Volume: 793, Issue: , Pages: 30-40 Article Number: , Supplement: ,
Publisher Elsevier
Reviewing status Peer reviewed