We present an ultrasensitive technique for quantitative protein–protein interaction analysis in a two-dimensional format based on phase-separated, micropatterned membranes. Interactions between proteins captured to lipid probes via an affinity tag trigger partitioning into the liquid-ordered phase, which is readily quantified by fluorescence imaging. Based on a calibration with well-defined low-affinity protein–protein interactions, equilibrium dissociation constants >1 mM were quantified. Direct capturing of proteins from mammalian cell lysates enabled us to detect homo- and heterodimerization of signal transducer and activator of transcription proteins. Using the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) as a model system, quantification of low-affinity interactions between different receptor domains contributing to EGFR dimerization was achieved. By exploitation of specific features of the membrane-based assay, the regulation of EGFR dimerization by lipids was demonstrated.