Patients with atopic dermatitis (AD) tend to have greatly elevated levels of serum immunoglobulin E (IgE). However, the role of IgE in the pathogenesis of AD is debated. This investigator-initiated open-label pilot study evaluates an anti-IgE-treatment approach by combining extracorporeal immunoadsorption and anti-IgE antibody omalizumab in 10 patients with severe, therapy-refractory AD. IgE levels decreased after immunoadsorption and decreased continuously in all patients during anti-IgE therapy. The reverse trend was observed during 6 months follow-up without treatment. In parallel with these observations, an improvement in AD was observed during the treatment period, with aggravation during follow-up. Further research is needed, based on the principle of reducing IgE levels in order to improve clinical symptoms, using a combination anti-IgE treatment approach, adjusted according to IgE levels.