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Reduction of the n-6:n-3 long-chain PUFA ratio during pregnancy and lactation on offspring body composition: Follow-up results from a randomized controlled trial up to 5 y of age.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr. 103, 1472-1481 (2016)
BACKGROUND: It has been hypothesized that the n-6:n-3 (ω-6:ω-3) long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) ratio in the maternal diet during the prenatal and early postnatal phase positively affects the body composition of the offspring. However, only limited data from prospective human intervention studies with long-term follow-up are available. OBJECTIVE: We assessed the long-term effects of a reduced n-6:n-3 LCPUFA ratio in the diets of pregnant and lactating women [1020 mg docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) plus 180 mg eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/d together with an arachidonic acid-balanced diet compared with a control diet] on the body weights and compositions of their offspring from 2 to 5 y of age with a focus on the 5-y results. DESIGN: Participants in the randomized controlled trial received follow-up assessments with annual body-composition measurements including skinfold thickness (SFT) measurements (primary outcome), a sonographic assessment of abdominal subcutaneous and preperitoneal fat, and child growth. In addition, abdominal MRI was performed in a subgroup of 5-y-old children. For the statistical analysis, mixed models for repeated measures (MMRMs) were fit with the use of data from each visit since birth (except for MRI). RESULTS: Maternal LCPUFA supplementation did not significantly influence the children's sum of 4 SFTs [means ± SDs at 5 y of age: intervention, 23.9 ± 4.7 mm (n= 57); control, 24.5 ± 5.0 mm (n= 55); adjusted mean difference, -0.5 (95% CI: -2.2, 1.2)], growth, or ultrasonography measures at any time point in the adjusted MMRM model (allPvalues < 0.05). Results were consistent with abdominal MRI measurements (n= 44) at 5 y of age, which showed no significant differences in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue volumes and ratios. CONCLUSION: The current study provides no evidence that a dietary reduction of the n-6:n-3 LCPUFA ratio in the maternal diet during pregnancy and lactation is a useful early preventive strategy against obesity at preschool age. This trial was registered atclinicaltrials.govasNCT00362089.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords Lcpufa ; Body Composition ; Obesity ; Preschool Age ; Prevention; Fatty-acid Supplementation; Adipose-tissue Development; Oil Supplementation; Physical-activity; Abdominal Fat; Maternal Fish; Mass Index; 1st Year; Children; Growth
ISSN (print) / ISBN 0002-9165
Quellenangaben Volume: 103, Issue: 6, Pages: 1472-1481
Publisher American Society for Nutrition
Publishing Place Bethesda
Reviewing status Peer reviewed
Institute(s) Institute of Diabetes Research Type 1 (IDF)