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Shen, R.* ; Schaefer, K.* ; Schnelle-Kreis, J. ; Shao, L.* ; Norra, S.* ; Kramar, U.* ; Michalke, B. ; Abbaszade, G. ; Streibel, T.* ; Fricker, M.* ; Chen, Y.* ; Zimmermann, R. ; Emeis, S.* ; Schmid, H.P.*

Characteristics and sources of PM in seasonal perspective - a case study from one year continuously sampling in Beijing.

Atmos. Pollut. Res. 7, 235-248 (2016)
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Daily mass concentrations and chemical compositions (elemental carbon, organic carbon, water soluble ions, chemical elements and organic species) of PM were measured continuously in Beijing for one year from June 2010 to June 2011 (365 samples). The seasonal variation of PM mass concentration followed the order of spring 2011 > winter 2010 > summer 2010 > autumn 2010. Organic matter (OM) and secondary inorganic aerosol components (SNA: SO42-, NO3- and NH4+) were the two major fractions of PM during the whole year. Source apportionment by PMF performed on the basis of a full year of data, including both inorganic and organic species, showed that biomass burning, secondary sulfate and nitrate formation, mineral dust, industry, coal combustion and traffic were the main sources of PM in Beijing during 2010-2011. Specifically, comparison among the four seasons shows that the contribution of secondary sulfate and biomass burning, secondary nitrate formation, mineral dust, and coal combustion were the dominating sources of PM in summer, autumn, spring and winter, respectively. The contributions of industry to PM was distributed evenly in four seasons, while traffic contributed more in summer and autumn than in winter and spring. Backward trajectory analysis was applied in combination with PMF and showed that air flow from the South contributed mostly to high PM mass concentrations in Beijing. Meteorological parameters (temperature, wind speed, wind direction, precipitation and mixing layer height) influence such a variation. In general, high relative humidity and low mixing layer height can raise PM mass concentration, while high wind speed and precipitation can reduce pollutants. In addition, wind direction also plays a key role in influencing PM because different wind directions can bring different pollutants to Beijing from different regions.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords Seasonal Variation ; Characteristics ; Source Apportionment ; Pmf ; Back Trajectory Cluster Analyses; Positive Matrix Factorization; Volatile Organic-compounds; Mixing-layer Height; Source Apportionment; Particulate Matter; Chemical Characteristics; Roadside Environment; Molecular Marker; Air-pollution; Urban Area
e-ISSN 1309-1042
Quellenangaben Volume: 7, Issue: 2, Pages: 235-248 Article Number: , Supplement: ,
Publisher Elsevier
Publishing Place Buca
Reviewing status Peer reviewed