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Aerosol emissions of a ship diesel engine operated with diesel fuel or heavy fuel oil.
Environ. Sci. Pollut. Res. 24, 10976-10991 (2017)
Gaseous and particulate emissions from a ship diesel research engine were elaborately analysed by a large assembly of measurement techniques. Applied methods comprised of offline and online approaches, yielding averaged chemical and physical data as well as time-resolved trends of combustion by-products. The engine was driven by two different fuels, a commonly used heavy fuel oil (HFO) and a standardised diesel fuel (DF). It was operated in a standardised cycle with a duration of 2 h. Chemical characterisation of organic species and elements revealed higher concentrations as well as a larger number of detected compounds for HFO operation for both gas phase and particulate matter. A noteworthy exception was the concentration of elemental carbon, which was higher in DF exhaust aerosol. This may prove crucial for the assessment and interpretation of biological response and impact via the exposure of human lung cell cultures, which was carried out in parallel to this study. Offline and online data hinted at the fact that most organic species in the aerosol are transferred from the fuel as unburned material. This is especially distinctive at low power operation of HFO, where low volatility structures are converted to the particulate phase. The results of this study give rise to the conclusion that a mere switching to sulphur-free fuel is not sufficient as remediation measure to reduce health and environmental effects of ship emissions.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords Elemental Carbon ; Emission Aerosol ; Heavy Fuel Oil ; Heavy Metals ; Online Measurement ; Organic Trace Compounds ; Particulate Matter ; Ship Diesel Engine; Flight Mass-spectrometry; Polycyclic Aromatic-hydrocarbons; Enhanced Multiphoton Ionization; Airborne Particulate Matter; Real-time Analysis; Gas-chromatography; Thermal-desorption; Exhaust Emissions; Particles; Air