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Alterations in β-cell calcium dynamics and efficacy outweigh islet mass adaptation in compensation of insulin resistance and prediabetes onset.

Diabetes 65, 2676-2685 (2016)
Publ. Version/Full Text Postprint Supplement DOI
Open Access Green
Emerging insulin resistance is normally compensated by increased insulin production of pancreatic β-cells, thereby maintaining normoglycemia. However, it is unclear whether this is achieved by adaption of β-cell function, mass, or both. Most importantly it is still unknown which of these adaptive mechanisms fail when type 2 diabetes develops. We performed longitudinal in vivo imaging of β-cell calcium dynamics and islet mass of transplanted islets of Langerhans throughout diet-induced progression from normal glucose homeostasis, over compensation of insulin resistance to pre-diabetes. The results show that compensation of insulin resistance is predominated by alterations of β-cell function, while islet mass only gradually expands. Hereby, functional adaptation is mediated by increased calcium efficacy, which involves Epac signaling. Prior to prediabetes, β-cell function displays decreased stimulated calcium dynamics, whereas islet mass continues to increase through prediabetes onset. Thus, our data reveal a predominant role of islet function with distinct contributions of triggering and amplifying pathway in the in vivo processes preceding diabetes onset. These findings support protection and recovery of β-cell function as primary goal for prevention and treatment of diabetes and provide insight into potential therapeutic targets.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords High-fat Diet; In-vivo; Diabetes Onset; Mouse Model; Glucose; Mice; Secretion; Obesity; Rats; Sensitivity
ISSN (print) / ISBN 0012-1797
e-ISSN 1939-327X
Journal Diabetes
Quellenangaben Volume: 65, Issue: 9, Pages: 2676-2685 Article Number: , Supplement: ,
Publisher American Diabetes Association
Publishing Place Alexandria, VA.
Reviewing status Peer reviewed
Institute(s) Institute for Pancreatic Beta Cell Research (IPI)