Pax genes encode an evolutionary conserved group of transcription factors with multiple roles during embryonic development and for cell type specification in normal and malignant tissues of the adult organism. In mice, Pax1 is required for the formation of specific skeletal structures as well as for the development of a fully functional thymus. In humans, the PAX1 locus has been linked to otofaciocervical syndrome, idiopathic scoliosis, and to a higher susceptibility for androgenic alopecia. In addition, the methylation status of PAX1 has recently emerged as a sensitive marker for predictive screening of cervical cancer. To provide a reagent for reproducible detection of Pax1 expression, we have generated rat monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) against the murine Pax1 protein. MAbs of one clone (clone 5A2) specifically detect mouse Pax1 protein in Western blot analyses. Moreover, the anti-Pax1 MAbs cross-react with human PAX1 protein and are applicable in immunohistochemical detection procedures using paraformaldehyde/formalin-fixed tissues embedded in paraffin. The anti-Pax1 MAbs provide a reliable reagent for reproducible Pax1/PAX1 protein expression analyses and, therefore, may help to improve diagnostic protocols in clinical settings involving deregulated expression of Pax1/PAX1.