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On the origin of apparent Z1-oscillations in low-energy heavy-ion ranges.

Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. Sect. B 388, 15-22 (2016)
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It has been known for quite some time that projected ranges measured by Rutherford backscattering spectrometry for a variety of low-energy heavy ions (energy-to-mass ratio E/M1 less than ∼0.4 keV/u) exhibit significant or even pronounced deviations from the theoretically predicted smooth dependence on the projectile's atomic number Z1. Studied most thoroughly for silicon targets, the effect was attributed to ‘Z1 oscillations’ in nuclear stopping, in false analogy to the well established Z1 oscillations in electronic stopping of low-velocity light ions. In this study an attempt was made to get order into range data published by four different groups. To achieve the goal, the absolute values of the ranges from each group had to be (re-)adjusted by up to about ±10%. Adequate justification for this approach is provided. With the changes made, similarities and differences between the different sets of data became much more transparent than before. Very important is the finding that the distortions in heavy-ion ranges are not oscillatory in nature but mostly one-sided, reflecting element-specific transport of implanted atoms deeper into the solid. Exceptions are rare gas and alkali elements, known to exhibit bombardment induced transport towards the surface. Range distortions reported for Xe and Cs could be reproduced on the basis of the recently established rapid relocation model. The extent of transport into the bulk, observed with many other elements, notably noble metals and lanthanides, reflects their high mobility under ion bombardment. The complexity of the element specific transport phenomena became fully evident by also examining the limited number of data available for the apparent range straggling. Profile broadening was identified in several cases. One element (Eu) was found to exhibit profile narrowing. This observation suggests that implanted atoms may agglomerate at peak concentrations up to 2%, possibly a tool for generating nano-structured dopant distributions. Details of the mechanisms promoting transport of metal or metal-like atoms are impossible to deduce from the available data. Primarily missing are studies into the dependence of apparent ranges and range straggling on the implantation fluence. The examined work also suffered strongly from the fact that essential experimental details like the pressure during implantation and the history of sample storage between implantation and analysis (location, duration, temperature etc.) were not disclosed. Progress in the field can be expected from dedicated new experiments. There is much room for discovering novel material properties that may be unearthed by low-energy ion implantation.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords Bombardment Induced Transport ; Nuclear Stopping ; Range Distortions ; Srim; Nuclear Stopping Regime; Gas Ions; Silicon; Si; Implantation; Oscillations; Retention; Profiles; Solids; Layer
ISSN (print) / ISBN 0168-583X
e-ISSN 1872-9584
Quellenangaben Volume: 388, Issue: , Pages: 15-22 Article Number: , Supplement: ,
Publisher Elsevier
Publishing Place Amsterdam
Reviewing status Peer reviewed