Manganese (Mn) is both essential and toxic for humans, mainly depending on the total levels and its species. Main sources of exposure include food and air pollution, particularly motorized traffic. We sought to determine the potential influence of these sources on serum total levels of Mn and Mn species. We selected a random sample of municipality residents from an Italian urban municipality, from whom we collected detailed personal information, dietary habits and a blood sample for serum Mn determination. We also assessed outdoor air Mn exposure, by modeling levels of particulate matter ≤10 µm (PM10) from motorized traffic at the residence of geocoded subjects. Serum Mn species generally showed higher levels in males and positive correlation with age, while no such differences were found according to smoking habits or use of dietary supplements. Among nutrients, only iron intake showed a relation with Mn [an inverse correlation with Mn‑ferritin (Mn‑Fer) and a direct one with inorganic‑Mn (Inorg‑Mn)]. Meat consumption directly correlated and fish and seafood inversely correlated with total Mn, Mn‑transferrin (Mn‑Tf) and Mn-citrate (Mn-Cit). Fruits and vegetables, including legumes and nuts, generally showed a positive correlation with all Mn species, especially Mn‑Cit, and an inverse one with Inorg‑Mn. Odds ratios (ORs) of having serum Mn levels above median value increased with increasing PM10 tertiles, with an OR for highest‑to‑lowest tertile of 7.40 (1.36‑40.25) in multivariate analysis. Analyses for Mn species did not highlight a clear comparable pattern. In conclusion, our results seem to demonstrate that PM10 exposure positively influences total Mn serum levels, while single Mn species show conflicting results.