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Monoterpenes support systemic acquired resistance within and between plants.

Plant Cell 29, 1440-1459 (2017)
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Open Access Green
This study investigates the role of volatile organic compounds in systemic acquired resistance (SAR), a salicylic acid (SA)-associated, broad-spectrum immune response in systemic, healthy tissues of locally infected plants. Gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry analyses of SAR-related emissions of wild-type and non-SAR-signal-producing mutant plants associated SAR with monoterpene emissions. Headspace exposure of Arabidopsis thaliana to a mixture of the bicyclic monoterpenes α-pinene and β-pinene induced defense, accumulation of reactive oxygen species, and expression of SA- and SAR-related genes, including the SAR regulatory AZELAIC ACID INDUCED1 (AZI1) gene and three of its paralogs. Pinene-induced resistance was dependent on SA biosynthesis and signaling and on AZI1. A. thaliana geranylgeranyl reductase1 mutants with reduced monoterpene biosynthesis were SAR-defective but mounted normal local resistance and methyl salicylate-induced defense responses, suggesting that monoterpenes act in parallel with SA. The volatile emissions from SAR signal-emitting plants induced defense in neighboring plants and this was associated with the presence of α-pinene, β-pinene, and camphene in the emissions of the 'sender' plants. Our data suggest that monoterpenes, particularly pinenes, promote SAR, acting through ROS and AZI1, and likely function as infochemicals in plant-to-plant signaling, thus allowing defense signal propagation between neighboring plants.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords Salicylic-acid; Disease Resistance; Azelaic-acid; Hypersensitive Response; Pseudomonas-syringae; Arabidopsis Immunity; Pathogen Resistance; Signaling Pathways; Defense Responses; Methyl Salicylate
ISSN (print) / ISBN 1040-4651
e-ISSN 1532-298X
Journal The Plant cell
Quellenangaben Volume: 29, Issue: 6, Pages: 1440-1459 Article Number: , Supplement: ,
Publisher American Society of Plant Biologists (ASPB)
Publishing Place Rockville
Reviewing status Peer reviewed