Iopromide exposure in Typha latifolia L.: Evaluation of uptake, translocation and different transformation mechanisms in planta.
Water Res. 122, 290-298 (2017)
Iopromide is frequently detected in water bodies due to its widespread use as an X-ray contrast agent in medicine. Due to its rapid clearance from the human body and its incomplete removal by wastewater treatment, an elevation of its concentration in the environment is observed that might lead to a serious impact on human and environmental health. Alternative or additional removal technologies may be more effective to remove iopromide from the effluents of wastewater treatment facilities, like phytoremediation with aquatic macrophytes. To test this, a hydroponic experiment was carried out to assess the fate of iopromide in Typha latifolia. The transformation products (TPs) in the plant were investigated to predict possible transformation mechanisms. The removal process followed first order kinetics with a linear regression R(2) value of 0.983. The iopromide concentration in roots and rhizomes reached a maximum value of 20.70 ± 0.81 and 16.82 ± 1.78 nmol g(-1) on the 7th day, respectively, thereafter decreased until the end of experiment. A different result was found in leaves, where iopromide concentration decreased over the whole experimental period. A total of eight transformation products were detected in T. latifolia, including 23 isomers. The relative content of aldehyde and ketone TPs decreased in roots and rhizomes while the relative content of carboxylic TPs increased. However, the relative content of aldehyde and ketone TPs only showed a slight decrease in leaves while the relative content of carboxylic TPs remained stable during the experimental period. In addition, a significant increase of decarboxylated TPs was found in leaves, but not in roots and rhizomes. These results indicate that a difference in transformation mechanisms exists among plant tissues. The findings of this study are important to better understand the transformation mechanisms of iopromide in plants and to improve phytoremediation technologies for such kind of compounds.
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Publikationstyp Artikel: Journalartikel
Dokumenttyp Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Schlagwörter Contrast Medium ; Iopromide ; Phytoremediation ; Plant Uptake ; Transformation Products
ISSN (print) / ISBN 0043-1354
Zeitschrift Water Research
Quellenangaben Band: 122, Seiten: 290-298
Verlag Elsevier, Pergamon
Verlagsort Amsterdam [u.a.] ; Jena [u.a.]