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PARTICLE triplexes cluster in the tumor suppressor WWOX and may extend throughout the human genome.

Sci. Rep. 7:7163 (2017)
Publishers Version Research data DOI PMC
Open Access Gold
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The long non-coding RNA PARTICLE (Gene PARTICL- 'Promoter of MAT2A-Antisense RadiaTion Induced Circulating LncRNA) partakes in triple helix (triplex) formation, is transiently elevated following low dose irradiation and regulates transcription of its neighbouring gene - Methionine adenosyltransferase 2A. It now emerges that PARTICLE triplex sites are predicted in many different genes across all human chromosomes. In silico analysis identified additional regions for PARTICLE triplexes at >1600 genomic locations. Multiple PARTICLE triplexes are clustered predominantly within the human and mouse tumor suppressor WW Domain Containing Oxidoreductase (WWOX) gene. Surface plasmon resonance diffraction and electrophoretic mobility shift assays were consistent with PARTICLE triplex formation within human WWOX with high resolution imaging demonstrating its enrichment at this locus on chromosome 16. PARTICLE knockdown and over-expression resulted in inverse changes in WWOX transcripts levels with siRNA interference eliminating PARTICLEs elevated transcription to irradiation. The evidence for a second functional site of PARTICLE triplex formation at WWOX suggests that PARTICLE may form triplex-mediated interactions at multiple positions in the human genome including remote loci. These findings provide a mechanistic explanation for the ability of lncRNAs to regulate the expression of numerous genes distributed across the genome.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords Evolutionary Conservation; Secondary Structures; Ionizing-radiation; Noncoding Rnas; Stem-cells; Dna; Gene; Complex; Helices; Activation
Reviewing status