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Maternal BMI and gestational diabetes alter placental lipid transporters and fatty acid composition.

Placenta 57, 144-151 (2017)
Open Access Green as soon as Postprint is submitted to ZB.
INTRODUCTION: Placental fatty acid (FA) uptake and metabolism depend on maternal supply which may be altered when women have a high pre-pregnancy body mass index (BMI) or develop gestational diabetes (GDM). Consequently, an impaired FA transport to the fetus may negatively affect fetal development. While placental adaptation of maternal-fetal glucose transfer in mild GDM has been described, knowledge on placental FA acid metabolism and possible adaptations in response to maternal obesity or GDM is lacking. We aimed to analyze the FA composition and the expression of key genes involved in FA uptake and metabolism in placentas from women with pre-pregnancy normal weight (18.5 ≤ BMI<25 kg/m2), overweight (25 ≤ BMI<30 kg/m(2)), obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m(2)), and lean pregnant women with GDM. METHODS: Placental FA content was determined by gas liquid chromatography. Placental mRNA expression of FA transport proteins (FATP1, FATP4, FATP6), FA binding proteins (FABP3, FABP4, FABP7), FA translocase (FAT/CD36) and enzymes (Endothelial lipase (EL) and lipoprotein lipase (LPL)) were quantified by qRT-PCR. RESULTS: High pre-pregnancy BMI and GDM were associated with decreased placental FATP1, FATP4, EL and increased FAT/CD36 and FATP6 expressions. LPL mRNA levels and placental total FA content were similar among groups. Specific FA, including some long-chain polyunsaturated FA, were altered. DISCUSSION: Our results demonstrate that high pre-pregnancy BMI or GDM independently alter mRNA expression levels of genes involved in FA uptake and metabolism and the placental FA profile, which could affect fetal development and long-term health.
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Publication type Article: Journal article
Document type Scientific Article
Keywords Fatty Acid Enzymes ; Fatty Acid Transporters ; Fatty Acids ; Gestational Diabetes ; Human Placenta ; Obesity; Endocrine Regulation; Fetal-growth; Mellitus; Obesity; Pregnancies; Expression; Proteins; Tissue; Disease; Phospholipids
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