Element speciation offers deeper insight into the molecular mechanisms of disease by determining element species pattern. Thus, having great potential for investigating neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and mild cognitive impairment, speciation is increasingly considered in epidemiological or clinical neurological studies. This review analyses recent speciation findings in neurodegeneration research, concentrating on measurements in cerebrospinal fluid and brain. Elements considered are aluminum, arsenic, copper, iron, mercury, manganese, selenium and zinc. Also interactions of trace element species are discussed briefly. Typically, hyphenated techniques are used in neurodegeneration speciation studies. The results allow sorting-out less important species from compounds significant for the disease, with subsequent use of molecular biology methods to uncover the exact mechanisms. This review indicates the trend of combining speciation and neuroscience and provides a sketch about data and outcomes. For brain research, we recommend using modern, powerful techniques throughout which provide advanced validity and information in a chemical sense.