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Rüger, C.P.* ; Schwemer, T.* ; Sklorz, M. ; O'Connor, P.B.* ; Barrow, M.P.* ; Zimmermann, R.

Comprehensive chemical comparison of fuel composition and aerosol particles emitted from a ship diesel engine by gas chromatography atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation ultra-high resolution mass spectrometry with improved data processing routines.

Eur. J. Mass Spectrom. 23, 28-39 (2017)
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The analysis of petrochemical materials and particulate matter originating from combustion sources remains a challenging task for instrumental analytical techniques. A detailed chemical characterisation is essential for addressing health and environmental effects. Sophisticated instrumentation, such as mass spectrometry coupled with chromatographic separation, is capable of a comprehensive characterisation, but needs advanced data processing methods. In this study, we present an improved data processing routine for the mass chromatogram obtained from gas chromatography hyphenated to atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and ultra high resolution mass spectrometry. The focus of the investigation was the primary combustion aerosol samples, i.e. particulate matter extracts, as well as the corresponding fossil fuels fed to the engine. We demonstrate that utilisation of the entire transient and chromatographic information results in advantages including minimisation of ionisation artefacts and a reliable peak assignment. A comprehensive comparison of the aerosol and the feed fuel was performed by applying intensity weighted average values, compound class distribution and principle component analysis. Certain differences between the aerosol generated with the two feed fuels, diesel fuel and heavy fuel oil, as well as between the aerosol and the feed were revealed. For the aerosol from heavy fuel oil, oxidised species from the CHN and CHS class precursors of the feed were predominant, whereas the CHOx class is predominant in the combustion aerosol from light fuel oil. Furthermore, the complexity of the aerosol increases significantly compared to the feed and incorporating a higher chemical space. Coupling of atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation to gas chromatography was found to be a useful additional approach for characterisation of a combustion aerosol, especially with an automated utilisation of the information from the ultra-high resolution mass spectrometer and the chromatographic separation.
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Publikationstyp Artikel: Journalartikel
Dokumenttyp Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Schlagwörter Fourier Transform Ion Cyclotron Resonance Mass Spectrometry ; Particulate Matter ; Atmospheric Pressure Chemical Ionisation ; Data Processing ; Heavy Fuel Oil ; High Resolution ; Petroleum ; Ship Diesel
ISSN (print) / ISBN 1469-0667
e-ISSN 1751-6838
Quellenangaben Band: 23, Heft: 1, Seiten: 28-39 Artikelnummer: , Supplement: ,
Verlag IM Publications
Begutachtungsstatus Peer reviewed