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Adam, T.W.* ; Chirico, R.* ; Clairotte, M.* ; Elsasser, M. ; Manfredi, U.* ; Martini, G.* ; Sklorz, M.* ; Streibel, T.* ; Heringa, M.F.* ; DeCarlo, P.F.* ; Baltensperger, U.* ; de Santi, G.* ; Krasenbrink, A.* ; Zimmermann, R. ; Prévôt, A.S.* ; Astorga, C.*

Application of modern online instrumentation for chemical analysis of gas and particulate phases of exhaust at the European Commission heavy-duty vehicle emission laboratory.

Anal. Chem. 83, 67-76 (2011)
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Open Access Green möglich sobald Postprint bei der ZB eingereicht worden ist.
The European Commission recently established a novel test facility for heavy-duty vehicles to enhance more sustainable transport. The facility enables the study of energy efficiency of various fuels/scenarios as well as the chemical composition of evolved exhaust emissions. Sophisticated instrumentation for real-time analysis of the gas and particulate phases of exhaust has been implemented. Thereby, gas-phase characterization was carried out by a Fourier transform infrared spectrometer (FT-IR; carbonyls, nitrogen-containing species, small hydrocarbons) and a resonance-enhanced multiphoton ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometer (REMPI-TOFMS; monocyclic and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons). For analysis of the particulate phase, a high-resolution time-of-flight aerosol mass spectrometer (HR-TOF-AMS; organic matter, chloride, nitrate), a condensation particle counter (CPC; particle number), and a multiangle absorption photometer (MAAP; black carbon) were applied. In this paper, the first application of the new facility in combination with the described instruments is presented, whereby a medium-size truck was investigated by applying different driving cycles. The goal was simultaneous chemical characterization of a great variety of gaseous compounds and particulate matter in exhaust on a real-time basis. The time-resolved data allowed new approaches to view the results; for example, emission factors were normalized to time-resolved consumption of fuel and were related to emission factors evolved during high speeds. Compounds could be identified that followed the fuel consumption, others showed very different behavior. In particular, engine cold start, engine ignition (unburned fuel), and high-speed events resulted in unique emission patterns.
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Publikationstyp Artikel: Journalartikel
Dokumenttyp Wissenschaftlicher Artikel
Schlagwörter Polycyclic aromatic-hydrocarbons; Ionization mass-spectrometry; Diesel-engine; Black carbon; Time; Fuel
ISSN (print) / ISBN 0003-2700
e-ISSN 1520-6882
Zeitschrift Analytical Chemistry
Quellenangaben Band: 83, Heft: 1, Seiten: 67-76 Artikelnummer: , Supplement: ,
Verlag American Chemical Society (ACS)
Begutachtungsstatus Peer reviewed