Thermal desorption and pyrolysis of various heavy oils and asphaltenes (precipitated with different paraffinic solvents) were studied. For this purpose evolved gas analysis was realized by hyphenation of a thermobalance to ultrahigh-resolution mass spectrometry (FT-ICR MS). The chemical pattern was preserved by applying soft atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). Collision induced dissociation (CID) was performed for deeper structural insights. Viscous or solid petroleum samples and fractions can be easily measured by the setup. The SARA fractions (maltenes, C7-asphaltenes, aromatics, saturated, and resins), deployed for evaluation purposes, revealed a very complex molecular pattern, and fractionation drastically increased the number of assigned elemental compositions. Species from m/z 150 to m/z 700 and two main phases (desorption and pyrolysis), which transits at roughly 300-350 °C, are observed. Both phases overlap partially but can be separated by applying matrix factorization. The heavy oil and asphaltene mass spectra are dominated by CH-, CHS-, and CHN-class compounds, whereas for the CID spectra a lower abundance of oxygenated species was found. Furthermore, physicochemical properties and the molecular response were correlated for the heavy oils and asphaltene samples, finding a strong correlation between sulfur content and abundance of CHS x -class compounds as well as between double bond equivalent (DBE) and API gravity. As the CID leads mainly to dealkylation, the length of alkylated side chains of components evolved thermally or by pyrolytic processes can be traced during the temperature ramp. In general, an increase of dealkylation in the desorption phase, followed by a decrease during the transition to pyrolysis and an increase reaching a stable plateau for stable pyrolysis, was detected. This behavior was found to be similar for all asphaltenes and for the mean DBE progression. Deploying a lighter paraffinic solvent for asphaltene precipitation causes a higher abundance of species emitted in the desorption phase. They belong mainly to CHO x -class compounds from the maltene fraction occluded and coprecipitated with the asphaltenes. Besides this, no significant effect of the precipitation solvent on the asphaltenic core structures and molecular pattern in the pyrolysis phase was observed. The DBE distribution sug gests the presence of the archipelago asphaltene molecular architecture.